Academic Catalog

Health Sciences

(413) 662-5153
www.mcla.edu/academics/academic-departments/health-sciences
Chairperson: Justin Golub, Ph.D.
Email: J.Golub@mcla.edu

Health Sciences Major

The general Health Sciences degree prepares students to pursue careers and advanced study in a variety of health fields.

Students graduating with a major in Health Sciences will be able to:

  • Understand and apply fundamental concepts in the discipline;
  • Find and analyze primary literature in the field;
  • Design an experiment to test a hypothesis;
  • Demonstrate appropriate technical skills in the laboratory;
  • Analyze data, with appropriate statistical analysis;
  • Communicate the findings of a scientific experiment or information about a pathology.

MCLA - Russell Sage College Applied Nutrition and Nutrition and Dietetics Articulation Programs

Strong students who have met the requirements in the articulation agreement are guaranteed admission to the Master of Science in Applied Nutrition and Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics programs at Russell Sage College in Albany and Troy, NY.

MCLA - Russell Sage College Articulation Program in Pre-Occupational Therapy

Strong Students who meet the requirements outlined in the articulation agreement gain preferred admission to the M.S. in Occupational Therapy program at Russell Sage College in Albany and Troy, NY.

Total MCLA - Russell Sage College Articulation Program in Occupational Therapy Requirements........35 cr

MCLA - Russell Sage College Articulation Program in Pre-Physical Therapy

Strong Students who meet the requirements outlined in the articulation agreement gain preferred admission to the Doctor of Physical Therapy program at Russell Sage College in Albany and Troy, NY.

Health Science Achievement Award

This award recognizes the achievement of a student in their junior year (at least 1 full semester of classwork remaining) of the Health Science, Athletic Training, and Public Health and Community Health Education major(s). Factors for consideration are GPA, course and department involvement (independent research, TA, SI, etc.), and extracurricular activities.

Health

HLTH 100 Clinical Observation1 cr

Allows the student to learn about a specific health care field through direct observation of clinical practice. The student will work with a faculty sponsor and a clinical supervisor. Students will complete clinical observation and will participate in scheduled discussions about the observation experience. This course is graded on a pass-fail basis and is repeatable to 3 credits. HLTH 100 may be paired with BIOL 500 Independent Study for advanced exploration of the field.

Prerequisite: Department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 3 credits  
HLTH 105 Medical Terminology1 cr

Allows recognition and accurate use of terminology that describes the human body and its pathological processes, conditions and diseases. Terminology related to procedures and clinical tests will also be addressed.

HLTH 110 Introduction to Healthcare3 cr

Provides content for a comprehensive survey and introduction to the U.S. health care system. Topics and discussions will include public health, financing of health care, health insurance, politics, health care providers, and delivery of health care. The course will introduce concepts of regulation, legislation, ethics, and elements of health care reform.

HLTH 150 Introduction to Community and Public Health3 cr

Introduces the fields of Public Health, Health Education and Health Promotion. Topics will include the history of public health, health status, health care philosophy, health and wellness, chronic and infectious diseases, health-related behavior, health theories and program models. Students will learn to use library databases and write a review of health-related literature. A service learning component will allow students to establish projects and relationships that will benefit the community.

Attributes: Core Self & Society (CSS)  
HLTH 150H Honors: Introduction to Community and Public Health3 cr

Introduces the fields of Public Health, Health Education and Health Promotion. Topics will include the history of public health, health status, health care philosophy, health and wellness, chronic and infectious diseases, health-related behavior, health theories and program models. Students will learn to use library databases and write a review of health-related literature. A service learning component will allow students to establish projects and relationships that will benefit the community.

Attributes: Core Self & Society (CSS), Honors Program (HONR)  
HLTH 195 Special Topics in Health Studies1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in health or related fields. This course is designed to focus on health topics or issues at the introductory level.

Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
HLTH 200 Health Promotion and Planning3 cr

Introduces students to health promotion programs. Students will develop health education curricula and teaching strategies for individuals and groups across the life span and in a variety of settings. Students will explore curricular design theory, health education needs assessments, instructional strategies, learner characteristics, teaching materials and aids, learning environments, and evaluation methods.

HLTH 201 Exercise Science3 cr

Facilitates an understanding of exercise based on the principles related to training basics, energy systems, muscular fitness and biomechanics. Students will learn to develop training programs for better physical performance and health.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/o lab (CST)  
HLTH 210 Human Growth and Development3 cr

Explores the life cycle from conception to death. Biological, sociological and psychological perspectives will be examined and applied to everyday situations and social issues.

Attributes: Core Self & Society (CSS)  
HLTH 210H Honors: Human Growth and Development3 cr

Explores the life cycle from conception to death. Biological, sociological, and psychological perspectives will be examined and applied to everyday situations and social issues.

Attributes: Core Self & Society (CSS), Honors Program (HONR)  
HLTH 295 Special Topics in Health Studies1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in health or related fields. This course is designed to focus on health topics or issues at the high introductory level.

Prerequisite: Will vary depending on the course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
HLTH 300 Ethical Issues in Health Care3 cr

Examines the moral traditions and ethical principles relevant to life, and their application in present-day clinical care and biomedical research. Introduces students to the historical, theoretical, and thematic dimensions of health care ethics. Focuses on main ethical terms and concepts, as well as decision-making procedures that students can use to discern and defend moral courses of action in health care.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status  
HLTH 310 Environmental Health3 cr

Provides a multidisciplinary understanding of the science, practice, laws and policy of environmental health sciences, addressing why risk of disease is modulated by the environment. Topics include types and sources of environmental contaminants, exposure assessment, types of microenvironments, human behavior and time-location-activity patterns, toxicology, the risk assessment paradigm, basics of environmental and occupational epidemiology, and communicating about environmental health sciences.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status and BIOL 150 or HLTH 150 or HLTH 150H  
HLTH 321 Lower Body Assessment4 cr

Explores all aspects of injury evaluation. Injuries to the lower extremity and lumbar spine will be stressed through lecture and lab. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 342  
HLTH 322 Upper Body Assessment4 cr

Explores all aspects of injury evaluation. Injuries to the upper extremity and cervical spine will be emphasized through lecture and lab. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 342  
HLTH 337 Therapeutic Modalities4 cr

Explores the physiology of inflammation and pain in the context of injury. Describes the principles and effects of therapeutic modalities (including thermal, acoustic, electrical, light, and mechanical) and promotes appropriate selection and application of the modalities. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and sophomore, junior, or senior status  
HLTH 338 Therapeutic Exercise3 cr

Offers students the opportunity to study the techniques and principles involved in rehabilitation of athletic injuries. It includes all aspects of reconditioning exercise and rehabilitation program development.

Prerequisite: BIOL 342  
HLTH 339 Therapeutic Exercise with Lab4 cr

Offers students the opportunity to study and practice the techniques and principles involved in rehabilitation of athletic injuries. It includes all aspects of reconditioning exercise and rehabilitation program development. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 342  
HLTH 350 Health Communication3 cr

Examines how communication affects and is intertwined with issues of health, medicine and ethics. Communication will be discussed on a personal, intimate level in the way patients and caregivers interact in the examination and hospital room; at the organizational level, in the way policies and community relations affect how health care is provided and how people feel about providers; and in media campaigns that seek to educate people about health.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status  
HLTH 395 Special Topics in Health Studies1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in health or related fields. This course is designed to focus on health topics or issues at the advanced level.

Prerequisite: Will vary depending on the course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
HLTH 495 Special Topics in Health Studies1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in health or related fields. This course is designed to focus on health topics or issues at the high advanced level.

Prerequisite: Will vary depending on course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
HLTH 500 Health Science Independent Study1-3 cr

Open to junior and seniors who wish to read in a given area or to study a topic in depth. Written reports and frequent conferences with the advisor are required.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status and department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 12 credits  
HLTH 510 Health Science Independent Research1-3 cr

For health science majors who desire to conduct research on a specific topic in a health science field. The research will be under the direction of the instructor and will require scholarly report.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status, department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 12 credits  
HLTH 540 Internship in Community Health Education3 cr

Provides students with hands-on experience outside of the college in the field of community health and wellness. The student will work with a faculty sponsor and an off-campus supervisor, as appropriate. Repeatable up to 12 credits.

Prerequisite: HLTH 200 and junior/senior status  
Repeatable: Maximum of 12 credits  
HLTH 590 Health Internship1-15 cr

Provides students with hands-on experience in health fields. The student will work with a faculty sponsor and an off-campus supervisor, as appropriate.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status  
Repeatable: Maximum of 15 credits  

Biology

BIOL 100 Concepts in Biology4 cr

Provides the non-major knowledge of basic biological concepts. Concepts in Biology deals with the development of concepts in the biological science of life. Among the areas to be studied are evolution, genetics, and developmental biology: all deal with the fundamental characteristic of life: its ability to replicate over time. Required laboratory.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/lab (CSTL)  
BIOL 101 Biology Seminar for Majors1 cr

Introduces students to scientific skills that will support majors in their academic work. Explores the diversity of biological and health fields through presentations, scientific literature and communication activities, and interactions with peers and mentors. This seminar is required for students majoring in biology, health sciences and community health education.

Prerequisite: BIOL or HLTH or CHLT Major  
BIOL 102 Nutrition for Healthy Living with Lab4 cr

Introduces the non-major to the importance of diet for present and future good health. Examines the importance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals, and their interactions. Explores topics such as label-reading, popular diets, dietary analysis, and other issues of current interest in the field of nutrition. Required laboratory. Students may take either BIOL 102 (4 credit lab course) or BIOL 103 (3 credit non-lab course) but not both.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/lab (CSTL)  
BIOL 103 Nutrition for Healthy Living3 cr

Introduces the non-major to the importance of diet for present and future good health. Examines the importance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals, and their interactions. Explores topics such as label-reading, popular diets, dietary analysis, and other issues of current interest in the field of nutrition. Students may take either BIOL 102 (4 credit lab course) or BIOL 103 (3 credit non-lab course) but not both.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/o lab (CST)  
BIOL 105 Human Biology3 cr

Provides the non-major with the knowledge about the structure and function of the human body. Students will develop ability to critically evaluate a large number of issues in this field, as presented in scientific publications and the news media. Students will gain a foundation essential for making knowledgeable decisions regarding quality of life. Students will be encouraged to share experiences based on their own culture and gender.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/o lab (CST)  
BIOL 150 Introduction to Biology I: Cells4 cr

Introduces the student to cell biology, mitosis, meiosis, genetics, photosynthesis, respiration and cellular organisms. This course is designed for, but not limited to, students pursuing a major/minor in science. Required laboratory.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/lab (CSTL), Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 160 Introduction to Biology II: Organisms4 cr

Introduces the student to evolution, ecology, and diversity of life. This course is designed for, but not limited to, students pursuing a major/minor in science. Required laboratory

Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or ENVI 150H  
BIOL 195 Special Topics in Biology1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in the field of biology. This course is designed to focus on biological issues at the introductory level.

Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
BIOL 235 Botany4 cr

Overview of the fundamental principles of plant biology with emphasis on anatomy, taxonomy, physiology and evolution of algae, non-vascular and vascular plants, including major divisions of gymnosperms and angiosperms. The focus will be on plants of economic, cultural or ecological significance. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or BIOL 150  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 240 Genetics4 cr

Examines the major aspects of heredity, with emphasis on Mendelian principles as well as multiple genes, linkage, sex chromosomes, chromosome numbers, and biochemical and population genetics. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150  
BIOL 245 Zoology4 cr

Introduces the student to the biology of the invertebrate and vertebrate animals of the world through evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships. The course serves as an introduction to the major phyla. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 250 Nutrition3 cr

Investigates the importance of diet for present and future good health. Examines the importance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals, and their interactions. In addition, the course explores topics such as label-reading, diets, dietary analysis and other issues of current interest.

Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or BIOL 150  
BIOL 255 Biodiversity4 cr

Provides the non-major with focus on global, regional and local patterns of biological diversity and processes that influence these patterns. Central to discussions of biodiversity pattern and process will be scientific principles from ecology, evolution and conservation biology. The impact of humans on natural systems and biodiversity loss will also be discussed. Case studies will be used to illustrate biodiversity loss and proposals to protect and restore biodiversity. Required laboratory.

Attributes: Core Science & Tech w/lab (CSTL)  
BIOL 295 Special Topics in Biology1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in the field of biology. This course is designed to focus on biological issues at the high introductory level.

Prerequisite: Will vary depending on the course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
BIOL 302 Applied Statistics in Biology1 cr

Utilizes a format of mini-lectures and group discussions of statistical analyses used in biology and health fields. One hour weekly.

Prerequisite: MATH 232 and sophomore status  
BIOL 305 Immunology3 cr

Examines the structure and function of antigens, antibodies and the cellular system of immunity. Additional topics include a study of the complement system, antibody classification, and immunological tolerance. The interaction of all systems will be emphasized.

Prerequisite: BIOL 240  
BIOL 307 Pharmacology3 cr

Examines the basic principles of pharmacology. Focuses on prescription and non-prescription drugs, their use, actions, indications, contraindications, misuse and abuse. Drugs will be considered on a body system basis with the appropriate consideration of the application of pharmacological principles as applied to specific body systems. Emphasis is on pharmacological applications to athletic training. Stresses the use of electronic media in both learning exercises and as a source of drug information.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150, CHEM 150  
BIOL 312 Epidemiology3 cr

Introduces the student to the field of epidemiology. Students will learn about the distribution, frequency, and determinants of patterns of disease and health conditions in various human populations.

Prerequisite: MATH 232 and BIOL 150 or HLTH 150 or HLTH 150H  
BIOL 316 Functional Human Anatomy3 cr

Studies human anatomy as it pertains to human motion, with respect to anatomical and musculoskeletal fundamentals. Includes a review of anatomy with emphasis on the function of joints and muscles as they relate to normal human movement.

Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or BIOL 150  
BIOL 317 Advanced Genetics3 cr

Studies selected topics in the field of genetics. Emphasizes the genetic mechanism as well as how this enables us to understand how genetics fits into the growing field of biology as well as its impact upon society.

Prerequisite: BIOL 240  
BIOL 320 Microbiology4 cr

Investigates prokaryotic and viral microbes with emphasis on both general and clinical applications. Major topics covered are taxonomy, anatomy, morphology, reproduction and growth, bacterial control, pathogenicity, genetics and genetic engineering. Extensive laboratory protocol is provided. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 240  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 324 Marine Biology3 cr

Explores the factors that limit the abundance and distribution of marine organisms. Topics include the diversity of habitats, reproductive strategies and the interrelationships between organisms, as well as the influence of currents, light, temperature and nutrient supply on the abundance and distribution of life in the oceans.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 327 Plants and Society3 cr

Introduces students to the interactions between people and plants in cultures throughout the world. Topics to be discussed include the current and historical use of plants as food, fiber, fuel and medicine.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 327H Honors: Plants and Society3 cr

Introduces students to the interactions between people and plants in cultures throughout the world. Topics to be discussed include the current and historical use of plants as food, fiber, fuel and medicine.

Prerequisite: Sophomore/junior/senior status  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI), Honors Program (HONR)  
BIOL 330 Journal Article Discussion1 cr

Utilizes a format of individual presentations and group discussions of journal articles related to topics in biology or health. One hour weekly.

Prerequisite: BIOL 101 and junior/senior status  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
BIOL 332 Bryology & Lichenology4 cr

Provides skills in identification and knowledge of taxonomy, biology and ecology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, hornworts) and macrolichens, with focus on the taxa found in northeastern North America. Students will gain experience identifying these groups using hand-lenses and microscopes, dissections, and chemical testing, and will learn techniques for preparing a personal reference collection and specimens for museum-vouchered collections. Required laboratory; labs mostly outdoors.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160 or BIOL 235  
BIOL 332H Honors: Bryology and Lichenology4 cr

Provides skills in identification and knowledge of taxonomy, biology and ecology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, hornworts) and macrolichens, with focus on the taxa found in northeastern North America. Students will gain experience identifying these groups using hand-lenses and microscopes, dissections, and chemical testing, and will learn techniques for preparing a personal reference collection and specimens for museum-vouchered collections. Required laboratory; lab mostly outdoors.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160 or BIOL 235  
Attributes: Honors Program (HONR)  
BIOL 334 Field Botany4 cr

Provides skills in plant identification through extensive fieldwork and study of live and pressed specimens. Emphasis on use of keys and associated terminology, exposure to the major vascular plant groups of northeastern North America, and practice identifying unknown plants. Students will learn about identification, morphology, ecology, taxonomy, and nomenclature of large taxonomic groups such as Poaceae (grasses) and Asteraceae (aster family). Required laboratory; labs mostly outdoors.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160 or BIOL 235  
BIOL 340 Developmental Biology4 cr

Investigates the development of plants and animals at the cellular, tissue and organismal level. Topics include gametogenesis, fertilization, early development, organogenesis and the control of these processes. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 240  
BIOL 341 Conservation Biology3 cr

Introduces the preservation of biodiversity at all levels: genetic, population, community, ecosystem and biosphere. Topics will include population biology, extinction, wildlife and land-use management, and socioeconomic factors involved in conservation decision making.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160 or ENVI 150 or ENVI 150H  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 342 Anatomy and Physiology I4 cr

Explores structure and function of the organ systems of the human body, with emphasis on the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems. The required laboratory includes histology, gross anatomy and physiology exercises. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150  
BIOL 343 Anatomy and Physiology II4 cr

Explores structure and function of the organ systems of the human body, with emphasis on the respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, renal and reproductive systems. The required laboratory includes histology, gross anatomy and physiology exercises. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150, BIOL 342  
BIOL 351 Ornithology4 cr

Provides an overview of the fundamental principles of avian biology with emphasis on ecological and behavioral aspects of ornithology. Students will learn to identify about 100 regional species by sight and/or sound. A semester long project will encourage students to investigate and read the ornithological peer-reviewed scientific literature. Lab activities will include field trips to practice identifying birds and collecting avian field data. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or BIOL 150 or ENVI 150 or ENVI 150H or instructor permission  
Attributes: Environmental Studies (ENVI)  
BIOL 353 Entomology4 cr

Prepares students to confidently key specimens of New England insects and other relevant taxa to the family, genus or species level. Students will gain extensive practice in examining insects and other relevant invertebrates using hand-lenses and microscopes, as well as identifying live and preserve specimens using dichotomous keys and associated terminology. Students will learn techniques for assembling a personal reference collection and preparing specimens for museum-vouchered collections. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160  
BIOL 354 Ecology4 cr

Investigates community and ecosystem structure and function, energy transformation, matter cycling, abiotic factors, food webs, symbiosis and populations. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160 or ENVI 150 or ENVI 150H  
BIOL 360 Biochemistry3 cr

Surveys the structure and properties of biologically important compounds: carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids, nucleic acids, and vitamins. Other topics to be covered include enzyme activity, cellular metabolism and protein synthesis.

Prerequisite: CHEM 201  
BIOL 361 Advanced Biochemistry3 cr

Studies the chemical dynamics in living systems. Topics include enzymes mechanisms, metabolism and its regulation, and energy production and utilization.

Prerequisite: BIOL 360  
BIOL 361H Honors: Advanced Biochemistry3 cr

Studies the chemical dynamics in living systems. Topics include enzymes mechanisms, metabolism and its regulation, and energy production and utilization.

Prerequisite: BIOL 360  
Attributes: Honors Program (HONR)  
BIOL 375 Aquatic Ecology4 cr

Focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological environment of freshwater systems, as well as on common methods used in the study of these systems. Concepts will be applied to addressing current challenges in conserving freshwater resources. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or BIOL 150 or ENVI 150H or instructor approval  
BIOL 380 Evolution3 cr

Examines the history of evolutionary thought and the processes of organic evolution. Students will present selected topics to the class. Guest speakers will present the effects of Darwinian thinking in such disciplines as philosophy, anthropology, psychology, sociology and religion.

Prerequisite: BIOL 240  
BIOL 390 Biometry3 cr

Application-oriented introduction to data analysis in the context of biology. Students will learn to statistically analyze and interpret data collected from a variety of biological experiments.

Prerequisite: Junior status and MATH 150, or MATH 220, or MATH 232  
BIOL 395 Special Topics in Biology1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in the field of biology. This course is designed to focus on biological issues at the advanced level.

Prerequisite: Will vary depending on the course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
BIOL 403 Applied Nutrition3 cr

Explores current issues and topics of interest in nutrition, including but not limited to athletic performance, human development, human disease and nutritional therapy, with focus on primary literature.

Prerequisite: BIOL 250, junior/senior status  
BIOL 405 Animal Physiology4 cr

Explores structure and function of major animal organ systems, addressing mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis and body functions. Both vertebrate and invertebrate examples will be used, and experimentation and primary literature will be emphasized. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160, junior/senior status  
BIOL 410 Biotechniques4 cr

Explores major techniques in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biology and molecular biology. This course is designed to be completely laboratory based.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160, BIOL 240, junior/senior status  
BIOL 412 Research Methods in Epidemiology3 cr

Introduces the student to research methods in the field of epidemiology. Students will learn the value of research methodology as applied to the field of epidemiology with a focus on concepts and interpretation of basic research design and statistical analysis.

Prerequisite: BIOL 312 and junior/senior status  
BIOL 418 Parasitology4 cr

Introduces students to the principles of parasitology and the related health concerns to humans and animals. Parasites from the following categories will be covered: protozoa, platyhelminthes, nematoda and arthropoda. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and junior/senior status  
BIOL 420 Bioinformatics3 cr

Introduces the fundamental algorithms used in bioinformatics and how these algorithms can be used to solve biological problems. In this class, the students will learn how bioinformatics algorithms work, as well as how to obtain sequence data from scientific databases and analyze these data using tools available on a high-performance computer.

Prerequisite: CSCI 243, BIOL 240, junior/senior status  
BIOL 424 Field Study in Marine Biology4 cr

Students will conduct research studies in marine habitats. Field work will take place in the Bahamas over spring break. Students will have the opportunity to visit a variety of habitats, such as sandy intertidal zones, estuaries, mangrove forests, shallow benthic areas and coral reefs (barrier, fringing and patch). Students will plan studies, conduct research at the field station, prepare a research report and present their findings.

Prerequisite: BIOL 324, instructor approval, and junior/senior status  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
BIOL 440 Exercise Physiology4 cr

Develops an understanding of the phenomena involved in optimum physiological functioning during work performance, whether it be in everyday living or athletic participation. Provides students with an understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and its practical applications. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: BIOL 343 and junior/senior status  
BIOL 445 Pathophysiology3 cr

Provides an in-depth survey of physiological causes and pathological development of diseases that affect various organ systems in the body. Pathologies will be examined at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels, with emphasis on the homeostatic disturbances that lead to disease conditions. Current research insights relating to disease states will be addressed throughout the course.

Prerequisite: BIOL 343  
BIOL 450 Animal Behavior4 cr

Introduces the topic of animal behavior, exploring the principles of ecology, evolution, development, and ethology. The course will examine behavioral adaptation (including physiological, ecological, and evolutionary aspects) from individuals to population-level interactions. Topics include: foraging, anti-predator, and mating strategies: mechanistic control of behavior, sociality, and aggression. Laboratory component will focus on observation, communication, and experimental design.

Prerequisite: BIOL 160, BIOL 240, junior/senior status  
BIOL 475 Special Topics in Biology1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics and current issues in the field of biology. This course is designed to focus on biological issues at the high advanced level.

Prerequisite: Will vary depending on the course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
BIOL 480 Cell & Molecular Biology4 cr

Examines the pioneering research in eukaryotic cell and molecular biology. Topics covered include structure and function of organelles, membrane dynamics, intracellular targeting, metabolism, eukaryotic replication, transcription, and translation, and applications to biotechnology. The required laboratory component emphasizes current cell and molecular techniques.

Prerequisite: BIOL 240 and junior/senior status  
BIOL 484 Biomechanics3 cr

Provides instruction in those competencies essential to the study of the human body as a machine for the performance of work. Enables effective understanding and/or evaluation of motor skills and their effect on the human structure.

Prerequisite: BIOL 316 or BIOL 342 and junior/senior status  
BIOL 491 BMC: Clinical Chemistry8 cr

Introduces the student to the physiology of the organ systems of the body and the various analytes that interact with them. Discusses abnormal physiology and relates to various disease states. Discusses the principles of test methodology. The student applies this theory to the clinical lab using current diagnostic techniques and instrumentation to correlate lab results to disease processes.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med Tech Clinical Lab Experience  
BIOL 492 BMC: Clinical Molecular Biology1 cr

Introduces the student to the basic structure and function of DNA. Discusses the impact of molecular genetics in medicine and specific methods for analysis. The student applies this theory in the molecular biology laboratory using current diagnostic techniques and instrumentation to correlate lab results with disease. Tech. Clinical Lab Experience.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med  
BIOL 493 BMC: Clinical Immunology1 cr

Introduces the student to the immune system and the immune response. Discusses immune detection, immunodeficiency disorders, autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivity, and tumor and transplant immunology. Discusses the antigen-antibody complex and the relationship to current testing methodology. The student applies this theory in the clinical lab using current immunologic techniques and instrumentation to correlate lab results to disease processes. Tech. Clinical Lab Experience.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med  
BIOL 494 BMC: Clinical Hematology8 cr

Introduces students to the study of the hematopoietic system including the relationship of hematologic diseases to diagnostic characteristics. Discusses erythrocyte and leukocyte disorders; cellular morphology, mechanisms and disorders of hemostasis and fibrinolysis; and principles of test methodology. The student applies this theory in the clinical lab using current diagnostic techniques and instrumentation to correlate lab results to disease processes. Tech. Clinical Lab Experience.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med  
BIOL 495 BMC: Clinical Urinalysis and Body Fluids1 cr

Introduces the student to the study of body fluids including urine, cerebral spinal fluid, synovial fluid, serous fluids, seminal fluid and miscellaneous other fluids. Discusses specimen collection and analysis. The student applies this theory in the clinical lab using current diagnostic techniques and instrumentation to correlate lab results with disease processes. Tech. Clinical Lab Experience.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med  
BIOL 496 BMC: Clinical Microbiology8 cr

Introduces the student to the study of bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections in humans. Discusses transmission, clinical symptoms, specimen collection and laboratory methods used to identify suspect organisms. Discusses prevention, as well as antibiotic therapy. The student applies this theory in the clinical lab to isolate and identify pathogens, to provide antibiotic sensitivity information, and to correlate culture results with disease states. Tech. Clinical Lab Experience.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med  
BIOL 497 BMC: Clinical Immunohematology5 cr

Introduces the student to the different human blood groups, blood components, the antibody screening and identification process, transfusion protocols, blood donor screening, and state and federal regulations. The student applies this theory in the clinical lab to process blood and its components, determine blood product compatibility, apply appropriate quality control and correlate patient results to blood disorders. Tech. Clinical Lab Experience.

Prerequisite: Department approval, requires acceptance and enrollment in MCLA-BMC Med  
BIOL 499 Teaching Assistant in Biology1-3 cr

Provides the opportunity for a student to assist in the preparation and implementation of a biology course.

Prerequisite: Department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 6 credits  
BIOL 500 Biology Independent Study1-3 cr

Open to juniors and seniors who wish to read in a given area or to study a topic in depth. Written reports and frequent conferences with the advisor are required.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status, department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 12 credits  
BIOL 510 Biology Independent Research1-3 cr

For biology majors who desire to conduct research on a specific topic in biology. The research will be under the direction of the instructor and will require a scholarly report.

Prerequisite: Department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 15 credits  
BIOL 540 Biology Internship1-15 cr

Offers the student an opportunity to practice in a professional situation relevant to the biology major. The student will work with a faculty sponsor and an off-campus supervisor, as appropriate.

Prerequisite: Department approval, junior/senior status  
Repeatable: Maximum of 15 credits  

Athletic Training 

ATTR 100 Observation in Athletic Training I1 cr

Introduces the field of athletic training. Includes completion of hands-on proficiency skills related to the field of athletic training, outlined by the NATA Education Council. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Corequisite: ATTR 220  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 101 Observation in Athletic Training II1 cr

Explores further the introduction to the field of athletic training. Includes completion of hands-on proficiency skills related to the field of athletic training, outlined by the NATA Education Council. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Corequisite: ATTR 221  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 200 Practicum in Athletic Training I1 cr

Builds on course content acquired by the sophomore year of the athletic training program. Provides clinical experience in the field of athletic training. A presentation, practice and outcomes testing of clinical proficiency skills outlined by the NATA Education Council is required. Experience will come from various sports and settings. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
Corequisite: ATTR 321  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 201 Practicum in Athletic Training II1 cr

Expands upon course content acquired by the sophomore year of the athletic training program. Provides clinical experience in the field of athletic training. A presentation, practice and outcomes testing of clinical proficiency skills outlined by the NATA Education Council is required. Experience will come from various sports and settings. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
Corequisite: ATTR 322  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 220 Introduction to Athletic Training I3 cr

Introduces students to the field of athletic training and sports medicine. Explores fundamental principles of athletic training, which includes terminology, physical conditioning and injury prevention.

Corequisite: ATTR 100  
ATTR 221 Introduction to Athletic Training II3 cr

Explores further the introduction to the field of athletic training and sports medicine. Emergency procedures and health care administration in athletic training will be emphasized.

Prerequisite: ATTR 220  
Corequisite: ATTR 101  
ATTR 300 Practicum in Athletic Training III1 cr

Builds on course content acquired by the junior year of the athletic training program. Provides clinical experience in the field of athletic training. A presentation, practice and outcomes testing of clinical proficiency skills outlined by the NATA Education Council is required. Experience will come from various sports and settings. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
Corequisite: ATTR 337  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 301 Practicum in Athletic Training IV1 cr

Expands upon course content acquired by the junior year of the athletic training program. Provides clinical experience in the field of athletic training. A presentation, practice and outcomes testing of clinical proficiency skills outlined by the NATA Education Council is required. Experience will come from various sports and settings. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
Corequisite: ATTR 338  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 321 Lower Body Assessment4 cr

Explores all aspects of injury evaluation. Injuries to the lower extremity and lumbar spine will be stressed through lecture and lab. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
ATTR 322 Upper Body Assessment4 cr

Explores all aspects of injury evaluation. Injuries to the upper extremity, head and cervical spine will be stressed through lecture and lab. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
ATTR 337 Modalities in Athletic Training4 cr

Explores neurophysiology and human physiology. Students will learn how these systems are affected when microfailure has occurred. Students will also learn how to use therapeutic modalities and develop specific protocols that will affect the recovery of the microfailure. Required laboratory.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
ATTR 338 Therapeutic Exercise3 cr

Studies the techniques and principles involved in rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Topics included are therapeutic and reconditioning exercise, weight training/conditioning, psychological and physiological considerations and proper program construction.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
ATTR 340 Athletic Training Management3 cr

Explores management issues related to the field of athletic training and sports. Topics include but are not limited to health care administration, professional development, ethics, budgeting, legal concerns, drug testing and blood- borne pathogens. This course also prepares the athletic training student for the NATA exam, employment and/or graduate school.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status  
Attributes: Leadership Minor (LDRS)  
ATTR 400 Practicum in Athletic Training V1 cr

Builds on course content acquired by the senior year of the athletic training program. Provides clinical experience in the field of athletic training. A presentation, practice and outcomes testing of clinical proficiency skills outlined by the NATA Education Council is required. Experience will come from various sports and settings. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Prerequisite: ATTR major  
Corequisite: ATTR 450  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 401 Practicum in Athletic Training VI1 cr

Expands upon course content acquired by the senior year of the athletic training program. Provides clinical experience in the field of athletic training. A presentation, practice and outcomes testing of clinical proficiency skills outlined by the NATA Education Council is required. Experience will come from various sports and settings. This course will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
ATTR 450 General Medicine in Athletic Training1 cr

Explores all aspects of non-orthopedic injuries and disorders of the physically active including history taking, evaluation and instrument use. Exposes the Athletic Training student to non-orthopedic injuries and disorders associated with the physically active.

Prerequisite: BIOL 342, BIOL 343  

Physical Education

PHED 103 Swimming1 cr

Designed for the non-swimmer wishing to learn to swim and swimmers looking to improve their swimming skills. Swimming as a lifelong health/fitness activity is stressed.

PHED 108 Community First Aid and Safety1 cr

Provides instruction in basic first aid and CPR for the adult, child and infant. Red Cross certification is provided upon successful completion.

Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
PHED 109 Scuba2 cr

Introduces the skills of scuba diving. Successful completion of this course leads to certification in NAUI, a worldwide diving organization.

Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
PHED 110 Fundamentals of Tennis1 cr

Instructs students in the fundamentals of tennis and game play.

PHED 113 Fundamentals of Beginning Badminton1 cr

Provides the opportunity to learn skills and strategy of racket sports, specifically badminton.

PHED 120 Emergency Medical Response1 cr

Provides instruction in professional rescuer CPR, AED, and first aid for the adult, child, and infant. American Red Cross certification is provided upon successful completion.

Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
PHED 125 Fundamentals of Golf1 cr

Introduces students to the game of golf. Provides basic instruction in a good golf swing and the following: putting, chipping, iron and wood shots.

PHED 132 Fitness for Life1 cr

Provides instruction in the components of physical fitness: flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and cardiovascular endurance. Stress management and nutrition are also discussed.

PHED 144 Aikido1 cr

Focuses on an understanding of the principles of Aikido, a Japanese martial art. Focus is placed upon mastery of the fundamentals of the art to an extent that the student will be able to apply correct stance, falling and rolling techniques, and proper distance during the practice of self-defense.

PHED 146 Self Defense for Women1 cr

Focuses on awareness and avoidance of a possible attack. Students will learn to punch and kick properly along with basic self defense hands techniques. This is a beginner's course in self-defense.

Attributes: Women Gender Sexuality Studies (WMST)  
PHED 147 Fundamentals of Yoga1 cr

Teaches the basic Hatha Yoga postures, breathing exercises and relaxation techniques.

PHED 150 Special Topics in Physical Education1-2 cr

Introduces students to a variety of physical education activities. Activities vary according to teaching staff and student needs.

Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
PHED 160 Strength and Conditioning1 cr

Designed for students to learn and practice techniques of conditioning as it relates to sport. Testing and training techniques for strength, power, speed, endurance, flexibility and agility will be emphasized.

PHED 200 Exercise Injury Prevention and Care3 cr

Explores fundamental principles of exercise safety, injury risk management and emergency care. Involves the study of orthopedic injury, environmental illness, eating disorder and concussion. Certification of CPR/AED and first aid for the adult, child and infant is provided upon completion of the course. Extra course fee required.

Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
PHED 215 Lifetime Wellness3 cr

Helps students develop a set of health behaviors that constitute what is generally considered to be a high energy lifestyle. These behaviors stress responsibility for one's health. Areas covered are physical fitness, nutrition and weight control, stress management, substance abuse, sexually transmitted disease and chronic disease.

Attributes: Core Health and Wellness (CHW)  
PHED 300 Fundamentals of Coaching3 cr

Facilitates an understanding of sport coaching based on fundamental principles that appropriately guide coaching behaviors. Involves the study and professional development of aspects related to sport coaching, including but limited to: leadership, sportsmanship, legal aspects, ethics, psychosocial aspects, interscholastic rules, organization and administrative aspects.

Prerequisite: Sophomore status  
PHED 395 Special Topics in Physical Education1-3 cr

Explores a specific aspect related to physical education, athletics, coaching or sports medicine. Content identifiable by subtitle.

Prerequisite: Department approval  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
PHED 500 Independent Study1-3 cr

Open to juniors and seniors who wish to study a topic in depth. Written reports and frequent conferences with the advisor are required.

Prerequisite: Junior/senior status, department approval  
Repeatable: Maximum of 12 credits  
PHED 540 Internship in Sport Coaching3 cr

Provides hands-on experience in the field of sports coaching. Students will utilize acquired knowledge, skills and abilities in various aspects of coaching in a sports-related environment. Requires 135 on-site hours. Graded on Pass/Fail basis.

Prerequisite: PHED 200 and PHED 300  

Radiologic Technology 

RADT 300 Introduction to Radiologic Technology2 cr

Emphasizes critical thinking and patient care principles needed for initial clinical experiences. Topics include physical and psychological needs of the patient and family, routine and emergency patient care procedures, infection control, communication, diversity, patient education, privacy, medico-legal issues, radiation protection, proper body mechanics, safe patient transfer, and contrast media's imaging applications and reactions. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+.

Prerequisite: Program acceptance  
RADT 305 Radiographic Physics3 cr

Introduces concepts of physics applied to x-ray generating equipment, including radiologic science, atomic structure, structure of matter, radiation quantities and units, fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation, electricity, magnetism, force and energy, electron interactions with matter, and the relationship between magnetism and electricity with focus on application to x-ray circuit components and generators. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C+ in MATH 150 and program acceptance  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 310 Radiographic Positioning I4 cr

Provides knowledge required to perform radiographic procedures on the chest, abdomen, upper extremities, lower extremities, shoulder girdle, hip and pelvis, with application to human anatomy. Emphasizes concepts and criteria needed to produce and evaluate quality radiographs. Pathological disorders, classification of diseases, and additive and destructive conditions will also be discussed. Required laboratory. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: BIOL 342 and BIOL 343 with a minimum grade of C+ and program acceptance  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 320 Radiographic Positioning II4 cr

Provides knowledge required to perform radiographic procedures on the vertebral column, bony thorax, skull, facial bones, and upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, with application to human anatomy. Emphasizes concepts and criteria needed to produce and evaluate quality radiographs. Pathological disorders, classification of diseases, and additive and destructive conditions will also be discussed. Required laboratory. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 310 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 330 Radiographic Exposures3 cr

Introduces the physical principles governing x-rays, x-ray production, and x-ray beam characteristics as they relate to quality, improved patient care and protection. Topics include image production factors, x-ray interactions with matter, fluoroscopic x-ray tubes and image intensifier, principles associated with dynamic imaging, radiographic technique includes x-ray beam filtration, beam restriction, and grid use. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 305 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 340 Digital Imaging, Processing and Quality3 cr

Introduces components, principles, and operation of digital imaging systems and factors that impact image acquisition, display, and retrieval in radiology, as well as principles of digital system quality assurance and maintenance. Introduces quality assurance, quality control, and quality assessment necessary for the continued production of quality diagnostic radiographic images. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 305 and HLTH 300 or CCAP 300 Ethical Issues in Health Care (all with a minimum grade of C+)  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 350 Radiation Protection and Biology3 cr

Provides an advanced understanding and overview of the principles of radiation protection to allow protection from exposure to radioactivity. Introduces characteristics of radiation as they apply to impacts of radiation on cell biology. Requires application of standards and guidelines for radiation exposure. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 330 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 355 Clinical Radiography I2 cr

Allows interaction with patients and health care team members in a health care imaging department. This first clinical experience of five, assists students in gaining mastery of techniques utilized in radiography, as assessed through competency examination of specific body areas. Students will practice patient care skills and radiation safety procedures under direct supervision of a registered radiologic technologist. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 300 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 365 Clinical Radiography II3 cr

Allows interaction with patients and health care team members in a health care imaging department. This second clinical experience of five, assists students in gaining mastery of techniques utilized in radiography, as assessed through competency examination of specific body areas. Students will practice patient care skills and radiation safety procedures under direct supervision of a registered radiologic technologist. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 310 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 370 Radiographic Pathology3 cr

Provides an understanding of the clinical manifestations of common pathological conditions as they appear on radiographs. Allows for identification of radiographic features as they relate to characteristics of the disease/disorder, and provides information about how technical values are affected by pathological conditions. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+.

Prerequisite: RADT 330 with a minimum grade of C+  
RADT 395 Special Topics in Radiologic Technology1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics in radiologic technology. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+.

Prerequisite: Varies by course  
Repeatable: Unlimited Credits  
RADT 420 Advanced Imaging and Pharmacology3 cr

Provides instruction in modalities, interventional radiography, pharmacology and drug administration as applied to advanced radiographic procedures. Utilizes radiographs for specialized study of cross-sectional anatomy relevant to imaging modalities such as CT and MRI. Introduces additional imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, mammography, ultrasound, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, and PET. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 320 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 431 Principles of Computed Tomography I3 cr

Provides fundamentals of computed tomography (CT) including history, equipment and quality control; first of a two-course sequence. Addresses aspects of data acquisition, digital analysis and image processing. Includes 40 hr of clinical observation. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C. Students may apply for the ARRT certification exam upon successful completion of RADT 431 & RADT 432, plus documented completion of the ARRT Clinical Experience Requirements in Computed Tomography.

Prerequisite: RADT 340 with a minimum grade of C+  
RADT 432 Principles of Computed Tomography II3 cr

Focuses on computed tomography (CT) exam procedures, cross-sectional anatomy, pathology and radiation protection; second of a two-course sequence. Addresses aspects of patient care and contrast agents. Includes 40 hrs of clinical observation. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C. Students may apply for the ARRT certification exam upon successful completion of RADT 431 and RADT 432, plus documented completion of the ARRT Clinical Experience Requirements in Computed Tomography.

Prerequisite: RADT 431 with a minimum grade of C  
RADT 433 Clinical Education in CT4 cr

Focuses on clinical application of computed tomography. This clinical experience allows the student to develop practical skills through instruction, application, critique, and evaluation on common computed tomography imaging procedures. Areas of competency include clinical indications, patient preparation and positioning, scanning protocols, radiographic technique, use of contrast media, normal anatomy and pathology and special procedures. Additional fee required.

Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 434 Principles of Mammography I3 cr

Provides fundamentals of mammography including history, equipment and quality control; first of a two-course sequence. Addresses in-depth anatomy, physiology and pathology of the breast. Includes 40 hrs of clinical observation. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C. Students may apply for ARRT certification exam upon successful completion of RADT 434 and RADT 435, plus documented completion of the ARRT Clinical Experience Requirements in Mammography.

Prerequisite: RADT 340 with a minimum grade of C+  
RADT 435 Principals of Mammography II3 cr

Focuses on mammographic procedures, patient care and image evaluation. Second of a two-course sequence. Explores breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, biopsies and breast cancer. Includes 50 hrs of clinical practice. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C. Students may apply for the ARRT certification exam upon successful completion of RADT 434 and 435, plus documented completion of the ARRT Clinical Experience Requirements in Mammography.

Prerequisite: RADT 434 with a minimum grade of C  
RADT 436 Clinical Education in Mammography4 cr

Focuses on clinical application of mammography. Emphasizes equipment utilization, exposure techniques, patient care, evaluation of procedures, image evaluation, image quality, radiation safety practices, positioning protocols, image acquisition, radiation protection, breast ultrasound and interventional imaging. Requires clinical exams in mammography. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 435 with a minimum grade of C  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 440 Radiographic Critique and Analysis3 cr

Focuses on radiographic image critique from a problem-based perspective. Enhances the student's knowledge of factors that influence the production of radiographic images and the correlation with radiographic critique. Bridges the gap between patient positioning and the resulting radiograph, and focuses on the analysis of image quality. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 420 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 455 Clinical Radiography III6 cr

Allows interaction with patients and health care team members in a health care imaging department. This third clinical experience of five, assists students in gaining mastery of techniques utilized in radiography, as assessed through competency examination of specific body areas. Students will practice patient care skills and radiation safety procedures under direct supervision of a registered radiologic technologist. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 365 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 465 Clinical Radiography IV4 cr

Allows interaction with patients and health care team members in a health care imaging department. This fourth clinical experience of five, assists students in gaining mastery of techniques utilized in radiography, as assessed through competency examination of specific body areas. Students will practice patient care skills and radiation safety procedures under direct supervision of a registered radiologic technologist. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 455 with minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 475 Clinical Radiography V4 cr

Allows interaction with patients and health care team members in a health care imaging department. This fifth clinical experience of five, assists students in gaining mastery of techniques utilized in radiography, as assessed through competency examination of specific body areas. Students will practice patient care skills and radiation safety procedures under direct supervision of a registered radiologic technologist. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: RADT 465 with minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 480 Senior Seminar3 cr

Focuses on factors that impact decision-making related to delivery of health care and radiological practice. Topics addressed include recent scientific findings in related fields of medicine, imaging modalities, and the future of radiographic study. Focuses on the synthesis of professional knowledge, skills and attitudes in preparation for professional practice and lifelong learning. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: Minimum overall GPA of 2.3 and completion of RADT 455 with a minimum grade of C+  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
RADT 495 Special Topics in Radiologic Technology1-4 cr

Provides students with an opportunity to explore different topics in radiologic technology at the advanced level. Successful completion requires a minimum grade of C+.

Prerequisite: Varies by course  
Repeatable: Maximum of 4 credits  
RADT 496 Special Topics Radiography I3 cr

Focuses on fundamentals of a radiographic specialty, including history, instrumentation and quality control, data acquisition, digital analysis and image processing; first of a two-course sequence. Includes 40 hrs of clinical observation. Successful completion of this course with a minimum grade of C may fulfill one of the requirements for applying for the relevant ARRT certification exam.

Prerequisite: RADT 340 with a minimum grade of C+  
RADT 497 Special Topics Radiography II3 cr

Continues education in a radiographic specialty, including topics such as exam procedures, in-depth anatomy and pathology, specialized protection procedures, and patient care. Includes 40 hrs of clinical observation. Successful completion of this course with a minimum grade of C may fulfill one of the requirements for applying for the relevant ARRT certification exam.

Prerequisite: Overall 2.3 GPA and RADT 495 with a minimum grade of C+  
RADT 498 Special Topics in Clinical Radiography1-5 cr

Focuses on clinical application of a radiographic specialty. Areas of competency may include clinical indications, patient preparation and positioning, imaging protocols, radiographic technique, image evaluation, normal anatomy and pathology and special procedures. Successful completion of this course with a minimum grade of C may fulfill one of the requirements for applying for the relevant ARRT certification exam. Additional fee required.

Prerequisite: Instructor approval  
Attributes: Additional Fees Apply (FEE)  
Repeatable: Maximum of 5 credits